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Necessary Covid vaccinations for employees in South Africa – are they nonetheless allowed?


With the nationwide state of catastrophe now behind us, employers who’ve applied vaccination necessities at their workplaces might discover their insurance policies challenged by workers, on the idea that they’re now not legally permissible.

This is contemplating the truth that such insurance policies had been applied in step with the Consolidated Direction on Occupational Health and Safety Measures in Certain Workplaces (OHS Direction), which robotically ceased to be in power and impact when the state of catastrophe ended, says authorized agency Bowmans.

However, though the OHS Direction is now not in power, the legislation nonetheless permits vaccination necessities on the office, the agency stated.


The legislative foundation for vaccination necessities

The major foundation upon which employers might implement vaccination necessities on the office is the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA), which has been in power since lengthy earlier than the OHS route, Bowmans stated.

“In phrases of sections 8 and 9 of the OHSA, an employer has a authorized obligation to supply and keep, so far as fairly practicable, a working surroundings that’s protected and with out danger to the well being of its workers and others who’re immediately affected by its actions.

“It is not only the employer that has this duty – in terms of section 14, employees are also under a legal duty to take reasonable care for the health and safety of themselves and others.”

The measures that employers are required to take to adjust to this obligation are detailed within the numerous rules printed underneath the OHSA.

In the context of Covid-19, the relevant rules that have to be thought of are the Hazardous Biological Agents Regulations (HBA Regulations), which had been not too long ago amended on 16 March 2022, Bowmans stated.

In phrases of the HBA rules, employers are required to conduct a danger evaluation to find out if any individual may very well be uncovered to a hazardous organic agent (HBA) and if that’s the case, should take fairly practicable measures to regulate such publicity within the office.

Regulation 10(4)(g) particularly offers that, the place fairly practicable, such management measures should embody, amongst others, making out there efficient vaccines for these workers who usually are not proof against the HBA to which they’re uncovered.

In this regard, the HBA Regulations now affirm that the SARS-CoV-2 virus is assessed as a Group 3 HBA and specify {that a} registered vaccine is offered to be used in South Africa.

This danger evaluation have to be performed by a reliable individual. A well being and security practitioner would doubtless qualify as a reliable individual.


Code of Practice

In addition to the HBA Regulations, the Code of Practice: Managing Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the Workplace (Code) is now in power.

This Code is a suggestion in deciphering ‘an employment law’ (together with the OHSA). The Code echoes the provisions relating to vaccination insurance policies that existed by way of the OHS Direction.

In explicit, the Code offers that each employer should undertake a danger evaluation to offer impact to its obligations underneath the OHSA and the HBA Regulations, and on the idea of the chance evaluation, develop a plan to incorporate, inter alia, any measures to be applied in respect of the vaccination of its workers (together with the date by which the workers have to be totally vaccinated).

Accordingly, it’s the OHSA, learn with the HBA Regulations (and as now supported by the Code), which offers the authorized foundation for an employer to implement a vaccination requirement on the office, the place that is deemed to be a fairly practicable management measure.

Whether a vaccination requirement is, actually, a fairly practicable management measure will rely on the actual circumstances, primarily based on the employer’s danger evaluation.


Important paperwork to help a vaccination requirement

In growing a coverage on vaccination employers would want to organize the next paperwork:

  • A danger evaluation;
  • An motion plan and/or coverage containing an outline of the measures to be applied in respect of vaccination, primarily based on the chance evaluation.

Process necessities

In phrases of the Code, the employer should seek the advice of on the chance evaluation and plan with the union/s representing nearly all of workers within the office, in addition to its well being and security consultant/committee. In phrases of the HBA Regulations, all workers have to be knowledgeable of the outcomes of the chance evaluation, they usually have to be given a chance to remark.

Accordingly, from an evidentiary perspective, the employer should make sure that it is ready to produce:

  • Proof that it consulted on the chance evaluation and the plan/coverage with the related stakeholders within the office; and
  • Proof that workers have been knowledgeable of the outcomes of the chance evaluation, given a chance to touch upon these outcomes, and have been notified of the contents of the plan/coverage, together with the duty to be vaccinated.

The significance of sound medical data

A vaccine requirement have to be supported by sound scientific proof. It is accordingly advisable for employers to acquire such recommendation.

The code requires employers to supply workers with details about, amongst different issues, the character of vaccines used within the nation, the advantages related to Covid-19 vaccines, the contraindications for vaccination and the character and danger of any critical negative effects.

One means to do that could also be to make FAQ paperwork or reality sheets out there to workers, through which rated, certified and well-respected medical consultants deal with questions akin to:

  • What does it imply that the Covid-19 vaccines utilized in South Africa have acquired approval for ’emergency use’?
  • Are the vaccines ‘experimental’?
  • Are the vaccines protected?
  • Are the vaccines efficient?
  • What are the negative effects of the vaccine and the way frequent are these negative effects?
  • If an individual has a comorbidity, is it advisable that they take the vaccination?
  • How many deaths have been reported on account of the person having taken the vaccine?

How to cope with workers’ objections to vaccination

The OHS Direction emphasised that employers ought to recognise objections to vaccination on medical and constitutional grounds. It is accordingly advisable for a vaccination coverage to make specific provision for an objections course of whereby workers’ issues can be thought of.

The Code (just like the OHS Direction) recognises that some workers might refuse to vaccinate. In such instances:

  • The employer should counsel the worker and, if requested, enable the worker to hunt steerage from a well being and security consultant, employee consultant or commerce union official; and
  • If, after such counselling, the worker nonetheless refuses to vaccinate, the employer should take steps to fairly accommodate the worker; offered that –
  • Where the idea for the worker’s refusal to vaccinate is that the worker has a contraindication for vaccination (which has been confirmed by means of a medical certificates, or if deemed mandatory, an analysis performed on the employer’s expense), the employer should accommodate the worker.

Where affordable lodging will not be doable with out inflicting unjustifiable hardship to the employer, then dismissal of the worker could also be thought of.

Workplace vaccinations stay a controversial matter in South Africa. Employers who’ve applied (or who’re nonetheless to implement) vaccination insurance policies would do properly to equip themselves with the mandatory data, recommendation and supporting paperwork to justify their actions.

  • Commentary by  Chloё Loubser and Talita Laubscher of Bowmans.

Read: Pushback in opposition to ‘long-term’ lockdown guidelines for South Africa



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